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最新消息總覽>公告內容 發佈日期:2020-06-17 09:06:55   發佈單位:ITF
關於船員變更及船員權利的相關指南

ITF E-Circular No. 197/S/2020

關於船員變更及船員權利的相關指南

(由中華海員總工會節錄翻譯)

  轉發ITF公布之《根據海事勞工公約 (MLC)規定船東及其他相關利益者之責任》訊息。

  由於現今眾多船員的僱傭契約在多次延長後都即將終止,根據各方提供的資訊以及ITF Seafarers Support接到的求助訊息,ITF了解到各地無數的船員已經筋疲力盡,迫不及待地想回家,或期待能收到工作酬勞。ITF一直持續在與國際船東和多個不同機構協調,遊說他們將船員指定為關鍵工人,得豁免於旅行限制,並取得了部分成功,有些地區的船員已可行動,但尚未同意的國家更多。

  附件的「船員更換指南」中列舉了MLC中規定的船員權利,也分別列出船東、船旗國、港口國的職責,以及工會的重要性和船舶上必須具備的財務擔保措施。ITF也將這份指南做成簡報版,方便船員參考使用。
附件:COVID-19封鎖期間相關利益方依《2006年海事勞工公約》承擔之責任船員變更權利指南

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  新冠病毒疫情導致航運業陷入極大的困難,在全球各地的供應和物流方面都出現不同的問題。國際勞工組織特別關切各國實施的旅行、隔離和社交距離等限制對 MLC 規範的船員權利造成的不利影響,包括:遣返/救濟、船員上下船、擴展SEA/職責範圍、休年假、上岸休假或尋求岸上緊急牙科或醫療服務、身心疲勞與福利減少。

  自各國採取限制措施以來,上述情況已有相當的改善,船員普遍獲得「關鍵工人」的地位,主要的海運樞紐也頒布ILOIMOWHO核准的指南及規定,便於船員遣返和救濟措施的執行。然而基於旅行限制和隔離措施,船員行使權利仍受限,如〈有關海事勞工問題和新冠病毒COVID-19疫情之說明〉所述 https://www.ilo.org/global/standards/maritime-labour-convention/WCMS_741024/lang--en/index.htm

  只有因不可抗力情況而無法行使權利的情況下,也就是船東或其他共同遵守和執行 MLC 規定的各方無法控制的重大情況,才能合理延遲或無法將這些權利賦予船員,當事各方包括:港口國、船旗國、勞力供應國/船員居住國、有義務協助船員的上岸休假、提供醫療保健和過境的國際勞工組織成員國。

船東

船東有責任依據船旗國MLC法律、法規和其他措施給予船員各項權利,包括:遣返、每月至少2.5天的給薪年假(船旗國國定假日除外);至港口就(牙)醫的權利及休假改善身心健康的權利。若船東拒絕給予這些權利,船員可以:使用MLC船上投訴程序,若未能以最低可行水準解決此問題,可向船長和船旗國、港口國、船東、工會和ITF檢查員等外部單位舉報。船旗國必須有保護船員不會因提出此類投訴而受侵害的規定。

船旗國

船旗國必須確保船東的MLC規定涵蓋所有在懸掛該國國旗船舶上的船員。船員有權透過船上投訴程序向船旗國投訴未解決的違反MLC問題,而多數海事管理機構網站上都會公布聯繫方式和作業程序,不論船舶在何處,都能指派船旗國檢查員檢查/調查。船東若違規者面臨的罰則可能很嚴重,包括:扣留船舶、撤回MLC證書、以違反船旗國MLC法律起訴起訴船東/人員(可處以罰款和/或監禁)。若船東未能遣返海員,則MLC財務擔保供應方(通常為P&I Club)與船旗國則有執行的義務,費用則可向船東追討。若仍無法解決問題,則港口國或船員原籍國可以遣返船員並向船旗國追討費用。可另參閱〈MLC Financial Security Provider〉。

港口國

港口國負責依據適用的區域港口國控制備忘錄 (MOU) MLC檢查。船員可能會投訴不合規行為,港口國管制官員 (PSCO) 必須針對投訴事項初步調查,並尋求在船上解決該問題。若未果,PSCO必須尋求船旗國的建議與糾正措施。若仍無法解決,則PSCO必須通知國際勞工組織。若船上條件明顯危及海員安全和健康,或存在嚴重不符規定或屢次違規的情況,則PSCO有權扣留船舶直至問題修正。在這種情況下,船員由於長期值勤、低於最低休息及超過最長工作時間、或無法獲得岸上醫療服務而導致疲勞,健康和安全可能受損,船員也可能會反覆被拒絕遣返或上岸休假。港口國可依違反MLC法律(適用港口和領水內的外國船舶)提起訴訟,罰則可能包括罰款和/或監禁。

海員工會

MLC公約中明定海員工會的功用。工會在與船東談判符合MLC要求的船員僱傭契約和團體協約時能發揮重要作用。工會在為會員提供建議、代表其行事或協助其行使MLC權利上,是十分有力的。

MLC財務擔保供應方

船上必須備有MLC財務擔保證明 (financial security certificateFSC),該證明通常由P&I Club簽發。若船員被遺棄,由FSC承擔遣返費、欠薪和其他SEA福利(最高四個月)、必要的住宿、伙食、醫療費用等。FSC必須含有理賠人員的詳細資訊,讓船員、船員之工會或個人代表可以聯繫以尋求緊急協助。

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ITF E-Circular No. 197/S/2020

Our ref: S/FB/SY/ss

15 June 2020

Dear Friends

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SHIPOWNER AND OTHER ORGANISATIONS UNDER THE MARITIME LABOUR CONVENTION, (MLC) 2006

We write to you regarding the rights of seafarers under the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC), as amended, and the responsibilities of different stakeholders in fulfilling them.

This is particularly relevant now given that employment contracts are in many cases coming to an end after having been extended on more than one occasion. We know from your feedback, and from all the calls for help that ITF Seafarers Support is dealing with, that thousands of seafarers are tired and exhausted, and either desperate to get home to families, or to be able to travel to sign on to their ship for the next salary payment.

You are aware from our previous communications of the work we have undertaken with the international shipowners, and various other institutions, to collaboratively lobby for seafarers to be designated as key workers, and for national travel restrictions to be lifted. Whilst this has had some success, and seafarers are in some instances now able to travel, much more needs to be done by Governments around the world.

The attached guide has been produced by Nautilus (Annex 1) and it sets out seafarers rights under the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC), as amended. The guide sets out the different responsibilities of the shipowners, the flag state, the port state, the important role for trade unions, and the financial security that the ship must have in place.

We think this guide will be useful for affiliates. However in addition we have also produced a more simplified version of this briefing which may be more suitable for individual seafarers (Annex 2) which you can share with your members.

The ITF recommends that if any seafarer is in doubt about their employment rights, they should check with their own union and/or the ITF for further advice.

Meanwhile, please continue to provide us with any information you have available at national level, particularly in relation to seafarers ability to sign off ships and finally return home.

In solidarity

Fabrizio Barcellona

International Transport Workers’ Federation